Vol 10, No 1 (2013)

Articles
The role of hormones of adipose tissue in the development pregnancy complications in obese women
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Abstract
Obesity in pregnancy is a risk factor for complications for both the mother and of the fetus. Adipose tissue hormones (leptin, adiponectin, resistin) are secreted by the human placenta and regulate the function of trophoblast.The review presents data from the literature on the role of adipocytokines in the development of gestational diabetes and preeclampsia in obesity women. The article considers the criteria and algorithms for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes recommended by the World Health Organization and the International Association of research groups for diabetes and pregnancy.
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(1):3-8
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Risk factors of disturbances in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and some pleiotropic effects of antihypertensive therapy in pregnant women
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Abstract
The any kind of hypertension developing during the pregnancy, associated with high cardiovascular risk in the future. At the pregnancy complicated by development by arterial hypertension, there are more expressed changes of a carbohydrate and lipide metabolism, than it is peculiar to normally proceeding pregnancy, were by important pathogenetic links of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular complications. Identification of new mechanisms of action of antihypertensive means associated with positive influences on exchange processes, is represented very demanded, considering pandemic nature of prevalence of metabolic violations in modern population.
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(1):9-13
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Hyperphagia and obesity
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Abstract
Since ancient times, mankind is faced with the problem of obesity, caused by mismatch between energy intake and energy use. In recent decades, both women and men are involved in obesity epidemic, the occurrence of which can be attributed to the increased consumption of energy – and fat-rich foods. There are several reasons for the increased consumption of high-calorie foods that are discussed in this paper. The article also highlights the mechanisms underlying hyperphagic disorders and diseases, the main manifestation of which is the insatiable hunger.
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(1):14-17
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Determinants of obesity in children and adolescents
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Abstract
Obesity is a multifactorial disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the etiological factors contributing to the formation of obesity in children and adolescents. Study included two groups of children. Main group: 101 children with obesity aged 10 to 17 years, body mass index (BMI) 31,27±0,51 kg/m 2. Comparison group: of 14 children aged 10 to 17 years, without obesity, BMI 18,54±0,11 kg/m 2. In all children we evaluated perinatal and family history, lifestyle and diet, anthropometric parameters, assessed the progress of sexual development. We found that the manifestation of the disease occurred in the early school years, and in boys significantly earlier than in girls. Mothers of obese children had complications during pregnancy (such as toxaemia, the risk of miscarriage, hypertension, previous medical abortions). The children in the majority of cases were early nursed on milk formula, had violations in feeding regime, and hypokinesia. The disease was shown to run in families.
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(1):18-21
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Influence of the dynamics of body weight on the risk factors of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes during the first year of insulin treatment
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Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether insulin treatment-induced weight gain had an adverse impact on cardiovascular risk factors in insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients during the first year after initiating insulin therapy when insulin analogues or human insulins are used. A total of 157 patients with newly insulinized type 2 diabetes were included in the study. The patients were divided in two groups. First group consisted of subjects (mean age 57 [45; 73], duration of diabetes of 10 years [4; 16]) who had received long-acting basal (glargine, detemir), premixed (biphasic insulin aspart 30, Humalog Mix 25) or short-acting (aspart, lispro) insulin analogues. Patients from second group (mean age 59 [46; 75], duration of diabetes of 10 years [5; 15]) were treated with intermediate-acting basal (Protophane, Humulin NPH insulin), premixed (biphasic human insulin 30, Humulin M3) and regular (Actrapid, Humulin R) human insulins. Our study has shown that insulin-induced weight gain may not adversely affect cardiovascular risk factors, particularly, lipid profile, in insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients during the first year after initiating insulin therapy. Use of insulin analogues for treatment of type 2 diabetes patients results in better glycaemic control, significant declines in blood lipid concentrations, less increase in waist circumference compared with human insulins during the first year after initiating insulin therapy.
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(1):22-25
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Metabolic complications of endogenous Cushing: patient selection for screening
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Abstract
Aims: this study evaluates the most common associations of symptoms and complications in patients with Cushing’s syndrome (CS) in order to choose a potential population to be screened for CS and estimates the diagnostic accuracy of first line screening tests (cortisol, ACTH) to differentiate ACTH-ectopic CS from Cushing’s disease. Materials and Methods: The clinical data of 259 patients with proven CS during 2001–2011 was analyzed. The clinical presentations of 197 patients (159 Cushing’s disease, 28 ACTH-ectopic CS and 10 cases of benign cortisol-secreting adrenal adenoma) were compared according to the cause of hypercortisolism. ROC-analysis was performed to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of the first line tests (cortisol, ACTH) to suggest ACTH-ectopic CS. A threshold for the test with the highest area under the curves was chosen based on the maximum sum of the sensitivity and specificity. Results: The most frequent complaints were related to fatigue, muscle weakness, weight gain and changes in appearance (facial plethora and fullness, striae). Among the complications of CS the most frequent were being overweight or obese (71%), hypertension (63%), dislipoproteinemia (41%), low traumatic fractures (43%) and steroid-induced diabetes (31%). In women, 16% were older than 50, in those who were younger amenorrhea was registered in 43%. The patients with ACTH-ectopic CS had higher rate of low traumatic fractures (p=0.04), increased serum late-night cortisol, 24 hours urinary free cortisol, morning and evening ACTH and lower levels of potassium (p<0.01 for all parameters). Plasma late-night ACTH measurements showed the highest AUC (0,811 (95% CI 0,712–0,909)) to differentiate ACTH-ectopic CS from Cushing’s disease. A cut off value of 108.9 pg/ml for late-night ACTH yielded a sensitivity of 60,7% and a specificity of 79%. Conclusions: patients with a coexistence of obesity, muscle weakness, fatigue, some components of metabolic syndrome and especially low traumatic fractures should be screened for CS. High plasma late night ACTH values in patients with proven CS value suggest ACTH-ectopic syndrome.
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(1):26-31
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Obesity in occupational groups of Western Siberia: comparison with representative national data
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare obesity prevalences in the occupational groups of Western Siberia with the national data. Materials and methods: We performed a single-step cross-sectional study enrolling 4472 employees of 14 occupational groups from Western Siberian institutions and enterprises. Obesity was considered to be present if the body mass index was >30.0 kg/m2; sex, age and education data were obtained with questionnaires. Age-adjusted obesity prevalence in the occupational groups (separately for men and women) was compared with the national data with calculation of odds ratio, attributable risk and 95% confidence interval. Results: Among women the prevalence of obesity was lower in teachers compared with the national data (OR=0.45; 95% CI: 0.31–0.66). Higher obesity prevalence was observed among operating personnel and technical workers (OR=1.69; 95% CI: 1.37–2.09) as well as metallurgy equipment operators (OR=1.65; 95% CI: 1.17–2.31). Among males higher obesity prevalence was registered in top-managers (OR=2.53; 95% CI: 1.80–3.55), operating personnel and technical workers (OR=2.03; 95% CI: 1.59–2.58), civil servants (OR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.27–2.40), and mechanics (OR=1.37; 95% CI: 1.08–1.73). Moreover, in women university education (higher percentage of employees having graduated from a higher professional institution) led to less obesity prevalence. In males no such tendencies were observed. Conclusions: The study allowed to identify the occupational groups of Western Siberia with higher obesity prevalence and to demonstrate the impact of sex and education level on this parameter. The obtained data can make a theoretical and practical basis for primary and secondary prevention of obesity in the workplace.
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(1):32-36
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Sleep-disordered breathing in acromegaly
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Abstract
Sleep-disordered breathing is higly prevalent in acromegaly, disturbing patients quality of life and increasing the risk of acute cardiovascular compications. Presented clinical case discusses key considerations for timely diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome and treatment planning. The case of 41 y.o. woman with newly diagnosed acromegaly and concomitant sleep apnea is typical for this disease.
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(1):37-42
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Experience of using long-acting testosterone undecanoate in hypogonadism, obesity and metabolic syndrome in men
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Abstract
The paper outlines the author's experience on the efficacy and safety of androgen therapy of metabolic syndrome and obesity in men with hypogonadism. The study used testosterone undecanoate therapy that reduced body fat and the severity of the other components of the metabolic syndrome, improved sexual function without causing severe side effects. A number of patients on therapy observed suppression of spermatogenesis, which prevents the use of the drug in the reproductive rehabilitation.
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(1):43-46
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The role of metformin in neuroprotection
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Abstract
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(1):47-48
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Desmopressin in the diagnosis and treatment of central diabetes insipidus
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Abstract
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(1):50-51
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The relationship between fat depot-specific preadipocyte differentiation and metabolic syndrome in obese women
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Abstract
Реферат по материалам статьи The relationship between fat depot-specific preadipocyte differentiation and metabolic syndrome in obese women. Park HТ, Lee ES, Cheon EP, Lee DR, Yang K-S, Kim YT, Hur JY, Kim SH, Lee KW, Kim T. Clinical Endocrinology 2012; 76, 59-66.
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(1):55
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Effect of fenofibrate on blood pressure reduction
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Abstract
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(1):56
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Effect of fenofibrate on blood pressure reduction
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Abstract
Реферат по материалам статей 1. Gilbert K, Nian H, Yu C, Luther JM, Brown NJ. Fenofibrate lowers blood pressure in salt-sensitive but not salt-resistant hypertension. J Hypertens. 2013 Apr;31(4):820-9. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e32835e8227. 2. Kwang K. K. Does Fenofibrate Lower Blood Pressure? Hypertension. 2013 Mar;61(3):e27. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.00792.
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(1):57
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Features of the extended-release metformin
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Abstract
Реферат по материалам статьи Ali S, Fonseca V. Overview of metformin: special focus on metformin extended release. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2012 Aug;13(12):1797-805.
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(1):58-59
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Metformin and pioglitazone are effective in reducing the levels of leptin and omentin
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Abstract
Реферат по материалам статьи Esteghamati A, Noshad S, Rabizadeh S, Ghavami M, Zandieh A, Nakhjavani M. Comparative effects of metformin and pioglitazone on omentin and leptin concentrations in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes: A randomized clinical trial. Regul Pept. 2013 Jan 14;182C:1-6.
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(1):61
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Bilirubin levels determine vascular complications in diabetes mellitus type 2
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Abstract
Реферат по материалам статьи Katsiki N, Karagiannis A, Mikhailidis DP. Diabetes, bilirubin and amputations: is there a link? Diabetologia. DOI 10.1007/s00125-013-2840-1
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(1):62
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