Vol 10, No 2 (2013)

Articles
Genetic and metabolic characteristics of familial isolated pituitary adenomas
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Abstract
Familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) – a relatively new term for the disease, which is characterized by an autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance, resulting in the development of pituitary tumors with no distinguishing features other endocrine diseases or syndromes, such as, for example, the syndrome multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1 syndrome) or the Carney complex. FIPA-families account for about 2% of all cases of pituitary adenomas. Among the FIPA-family about 15–20% have mutations in the gene encoding the protein aryl hydrocarbon receptor. This suppressor gene located on the long arm of chromosome 11. Etiological gene for the rest of the greater percentage of FIPA-family is still unknown. Germline mutations in the AIP gene have also been found in patients with early development of pituitary adenomas, mainly secreting growth hormone, much rarely – prolactin and adrenocorticotropic hormone without a clear family history. Such cases are called "simple". Somatic mutations of the AIP gene in pituitary tumors or other sites has not yet been described
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(2):3-10
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Vitamin K-dependent proteins: osteocalcin, matrix Gla-protein and extra osseous effects
Pankratova Y.В., Pigarova E.A., Dzeranova L.K.
Abstract

Vitamin K - is a fat-soluble vitamin which plays an important role in the metabolism of bone and connective tissue, maintenance blood clotting properties. Vitamin K is involved in carboxylation of glutamic acid residues in the polypeptide chains of 14 human proteins, providing them with the necessary functional properties. Lack of vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of these proteins leads to changes in their biological activity. In this literature review we cover the mechanisms of vitamin K-dependent carboxylation and none bone actions of osteocalcin and matrix Gla-protein with different degrees of carboxylation.

Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(2):11-18
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Diabetes and consolidation of fractures
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Abstract
One of the complications of diabetes in humans is inadequate bone formation resulting in osteopenia and slow consolidation of fractures. The basis of these pathological processes is a disruption of the regeneration of bone tissue in insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia, the mechanisms of which are highlighted in this mini-review. The published data indicate the need for careful monitoring of blood glucose levels and adequate replacement therapy for the prevention of skeletal complications of diabetes.
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(2):19-21
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Evaluation of adipose tissue mass with anthropometric and visualization methods; its relation to the components of the metabolic syndrome
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Abstract
We performed an estimation of body fat using ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and anthropometry in 60 patients with different types of body weight (BW). Correlation of waist circumference (WC), thickness of subcutaneous fat and visceral fat with components of the metabolic syndrome was studied comparatively between ultrasound and MRI measurements. We noted a preferential increase in the thickness of visceral fat compared with subcutaneous with increasing degree of BW. Significant increase in adipose tissue and the development of metabolic disorders occurs in overweight, making it the state close to obesity. During a routine ultrasound of the abdomen it is advisable to determine the thickness of subcutaneous and visceral fat separately.
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(2):23-27
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Changes in hormonal and metabolic status in men of an ethnic group Komi with overweight and obesity
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare hormonal, anthropometric and metabolic parameters in men of the komi ethnic group with (n=23, BMI ≥25 kg/м2) or without (n=39, 18.4≤BMI <25 kg/м2) obesity. Totally 62 males living in Komi Republic were included in the study. It has been established that obesity was accompanied by an increase in serum concentrations of cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in comparison with control group indicating metabolic disturbance. The data shows the significant effect of BMI on testosterone and FSH serum concentration, but not on LH, estradiol, thyrotrophic hormone, thyroxin and triiodthyronin levels. Overweight and obese men had lower circulating testosterone and higher FSH level in comparison with the controls. The reproductive hormone changes in overweight and obese men can result in deleterious effects on sexual functions including erectile dysfunction, reduced libido and alteration in spermatogenesis
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(2):28-32
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Obesity associated with neuroleptic drugs, value of hyperprolactinemia
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Abstract
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(2):33-37
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Metabolic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus at the onset of primary adrenal insufficiency
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Abstract
Primary adrenal insufficiency is a rare disorder but it is more common in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or autoimmune thyroid diseases than in the general population. T1DM may precede the development of adrenocortical insufficiency. Addison’s disease can influence the glycemic control in patients with T1DM worsening glucose metabolism. It causes the decrease of gluconeogenesis, reduction in total insulin requirement and rather often «unexplained» recurrent hypoglycemia. Glucocorticoid replacement therapy in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency and T1DM increases the insulin requirement. The article presents the development of primary adrenal insufficiency in a patient with type 1 DM and autoimmune hypothyroidism, accompanied with incidents of recurrent hypoglycemia.
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(2):38-41
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Granins as biochemical, immunohistochemical and metabolic markers of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas
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Abstract
Granins are glycoproteins presented in granules of neuroendocrine cells, they regulate secretory pathway that is responsible for controlled delivery of peptides, hormones and neurotransmitters, and growth factors, organization of the granular matrix, and the mechanisms of administration after hormone secretion The highest accuracy has been observed in neuroendocrine tumors characterized by an intense secretory activity, but its specificity and sensitivity remain very high also in nonfunctioning tumors. The granins application as the markers of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas would allow the early disease detection, assessment the secretory capacity of tumor, and differential diagnosis with autoimmune forms of pituitary lesions. Furthermore, granins can be used as markers of related metabolic disorders, especially of cardiovascular diseases.
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(2):42-44
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Nutrition in sports
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Abstract
Nutrition is one of the fundamental factors that influence the effectiveness of physical activity, increase efficiency and replenishment of muscle mass, balances the ratio of energy consumed and restored. The diet of an athlete can and should be built on common foods available and prepared in accordance with generally accepted principles of healthy eating. The need for major macronutrients and micronutrients is determined by the need for energy, the intensity of sweating and the goals for building muscle mass. Depending on the intensity of the proposed load including competition, there are individual nutritional needs and, if necessary, various food supplements may be used. The basic principles of sport nutrition are described in this article
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(2):49-53
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Obesity and hypothyroidism
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Abstract
Obesity and hypothyroidism are common diseases, and consequently clinicians should be particularly alert to the possibility of thyroid dysfunction in obese patients. The relationship between thyroid function and obesity is likely to be bidirectional, with hypothyroidism affecting weight, but obesity also influencing thyroid function. Both serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and fT3 are typically increased in obese individuals, an effect likely mediated by leptin. Following L-T4 treatment for overt hypothyroidism, weight loss appears to be modest and mediated primarily by loss of water weight rather than fat. Selected thyroid analogs might be a means by which to improve weight loss by increasing energy expenditure in obese patients during continued caloric deprivation
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(2):54-58
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Protective effects of metformin on neointima formation in insulin resistance
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Abstract
Реферат по материалам статьи Lu J, Ji J, Meng H, Wang D, Jiang B, Liu L, Randell E, Adeli K, Meng QH. The protective effect and underlying mechanism of metformin on neointima formation in fructose-induced insulin resistant rats. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013 Apr 5;12:58. doi: 10.1186/1475-2840-12-58.
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(2):59-60
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Metformin prevents the development of goiter in diabetes mellitus type 2
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Abstract
Реферат по материалам статьи Ittermann T, Markus MR, Schipf S, Derwahl KM, Meisinger C, Volzke H. Metformin Inhibits Goitrogenous Effects of Type 2 Diabetes. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013 May 17;169(1):9-15. doi: 10.1530/EJE-13-0101. Print 2013.
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(2):61-62
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Erratum
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Abstract
Obesity and metabolism. 2013;10(2):62
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